Ownership, roles and responsibilities

Ownership over a project or task is important to clarify. Clear roles and responsibilities increase efficiency and effectiveness. More importantly, it creates accountability which means that stuff will actually get done.

When explaining the importance of roles, I typically rely on the OARP framework. I prefer OARP to other models (e.g., RASCI) mostly because I’ve used it more and it’s what I’m used to. But what I really like about OARP is the choice of language: Owner and Participant are explicitly called out. Those are the two most confused roles (though they’re the farthest apart when it comes to responsibility) when it comes to any given project.

OARP framework 1

For meetings, everyone in the room should know who owns the decision, who is there for their expertise, and who is just there to listen so that they’re in the loop (I prefer to leave this last group out of the meeting entirely, and instead sending a summary email as follow up).

In 2008 I performed a 6-month consulting engagement with a Fortune 500 company that had this completely wrong. Everything took forever to do, each deliverable was owned by at least two different teams, and no one had any idea what anyone else really did. It was a mess, and a pain to fix.

We painstakingly went through every deliverable for the department that we were serving and outlined which individuals and/or teams fit into each role. They hated us while we were doing it, but were very grateful for the end result. It simplified all of their lives.

I’ve too often seen ownership and accountability diluted to the point where nothing gets done, and there’s no trail to figure out what went wrong. On your next day at work, ask yourself who on your current project team fits into which role, and share that with the rest of your team. Trust me, it goes a long way.

January 27, 2011 at 7:06 pm Leave a comment

Keep it fresh

Old school bicycle

I was walking around town with a friend recently and we came across this beautiful bicycle. I don’t bike, and I’ve never thought of bikes as particularly eye-catching. But this one was. It had that classic feel, but still glistened as if it just rolled off the production line.

We stopped to take pictures, and this sparked a conversation about our respective relationships. The focal point was that after the “honeymoon stage” relationships become much more deliberate. People describe this as hard work, but I’m not sure that’s right. Yes, it takes effort, but I don’t find the “work” to be particularly hard. It’s desired. I want to try, and if I don’t then I’m in the wrong relationship.

Beyond effort, and the shift from natural to deliberate, the thing that I see as most important is understanding why you’re together in the first place. What has made your relationship work to this point? Don’t forget that, and keep doing those things. You don’t need something new and you don’t need to change. Keep what works.

Look at Southwest Airlines. Many view Southwest as the pioneer of the low cost carriers in the United States. However, most don’t know about Southwest’s predecessor…conveniently named Pacific Southwest Airlines, or PSA.

Before airline deregulation PSA owned the California airline market – the largest in the world. They had a high spirit, fun, no frills culture. Their planes had big smiles on the front of them, and their stewardesses were energetic and attractive. They consistently used words like “love” to describe their philosophy on running an airline. Ring a bell?

PSA facePSA stewardesses

Southwest Airlines was founded in 1967 in Texas and, recognizing PSA’s dominance, they decided that this was the model to follow. Pre-deregulation Southwest was forced to operate only in Texas, and PSA operated only in California, so they wouldn’t be directly competing. Given this, PSA was happy to accommodate the Southwest executives with their operating plans, operating manuals and the like.

Southwest’s motto became “copy PSA in Texas.” According to Lamar Muse, Southwest’s first CEO, creating the operating plans was “primarily a cut-and-paste procedure.”

In time, one thing became clear: Southwest understood why PSA was successful and PSA didn’t.

Deregulation came in 1978. PSA strayed into other models (like the fly-drive-sleep campaign), but Southwest, understanding the reason behind the success of the no frills model, outlined it’s ten governing points:

  1. Remain a short-haul, under two-hour segments
  2. Utilize the 737 as our primary aircraft for ten to twelve years
  3. Continued high aircraft utilization and quick turns, ten minutes in most cases
  4. The passenger is our #1 product. Do not carry air freight or mail, only small packages which have high profitability and low handling costs
  5. Continued low fares and high frequency of service
  6. Stay out of food services
  7. No interlining – a/c costs in ticketing, tariffs and computers and our unique airports do not lend themselves to interlining
  8. Retain Texas as our #1 priority and only go interstate if high-density short haul markets are available to us
  9. Keep the family and people feeling in our service and a fun atmosphere aloft. We’re proud of our employees
  10. Keep it simple. Continue cash-register tickets, ten-minute cancellation of reservations at the gate in order to clear standbys, simplified computer system, free drinks in Executive service, free coffee and donuts in the boarding area, no seat selection on board, tape-recorded passenger manifest, bring airplanes and crews home to Dallas each night, only one domicile and maintenance facility

Two of these points have shifted slightly over the last three decades, but they’ve mostly stayed the same. The result: Southwest Airlines was the best performing US stock between 1972 and 2002 – better than Intel, Wal-mart, Comcast, you name it (yes, an airline!).

This is not to say never to change. Rather, know why you’re successful, and what the criteria for change should be. Southwest hasn’t yet come across most of its criteria for change (whatever it believes those might be), and chances are that your relationship hasn’t either.

Southwest love logo

January 26, 2011 at 8:36 am 2 comments

The teenage years

Photo courtesy of the She Knows Parenting Article “Avoiding Bad Influences”, March 12, 2009

I love the energy, creativity and optimism of kids. They’re called cute when they’re babies, adorable through adolescence, and then when they hit their teens they get a bad rap. They can be called immature, naive, rebellious, inexperienced, etc, but that’s not the whole story. I’ve been working with many teen users of my company’s product over the past 6 months and, truth be told, we can learn so much from them.

The way of thinking that comes with this “lack of experience” is envious. Nothing inherently comes with living more years. Sure, there are more opportunities to learn, and more opportunities to grow and mature. But what do we lose in the process?

My time in Silicon Valley has taught me a lot. Most of all…talent is EVERYWHERE. Organizations like Teens in Tech demonstrate this in action. And I’m helping to make sure this trend continues with my involvement in NFTE (great organization, get involved- look at us getting Obama support!).

I’m amazed at the ability of these young users to take a task and accomplish it in an organized and enthusiastic manner. The result may not be perfect, but the process includes passion. Most importantly, they welcome constructive criticism and iteration. A skill we all could use a little more of.

This last point reminds me of the way that companies operate in that period right after “startup” mode. You’ve got your market, your core community, cash in the bank…what’s next? I refer to this period in a company’s history as the teenage years. Not quite sure where you’re going but you’re excited to get there. You’re willing to take risk and optimistic about the future. You’re insecure and searching for identity but you welcome help in getting there. Sound familiar?

We lose something in the post-teenage years. If you’re a company in that stage, try to get those feelings back. Optimism, energy, and passion among your people (the right people) can be your most valuable assets.

January 20, 2011 at 8:15 am 93 comments

Helpful neighbors and great customer service

tahoe 2tahoe 5tahoe 4tahoe 1

I’m in Lake Tahoe, CA for the first time this weekend with a few friends. It’s beautiful, and we’re having terrific weather. Unfortunately, I’ve been pretty sick this week, so I’m not going to be doing much snowboarding. However, that didn’t stop me from getting my fair share of entertainment this morning.

Everyone woke up a little before 8am to get ready for the slopes. I was sleeping in the living room (the couch is my typical spot) so this meant it was time for me to get up too. I sat up, checked my email and surfed the net while everyone else was showering and preparing for the day.

Finally, everyone was out the door, so I curled back up on my couch, lifted the sheets up to my chin and began to get lost in the glory that is extra sleep. 15 seconds later I heard the distinctive sound of tires spinning in the desperate search to find dry asphalt. I pretended not to hear. Sleep is all that concerned me right now. Eyes closed…starting to drift…then LOUD SQUEALING! There it goes again. I climbed off the couch and walked to the window. I couldn’t see anyone. Maybe it was the neighbors. I headed back toward the couch when Chris walked in.

“We’re stuck.”


“Need help?” I asked, then letting out a small cough to give the reminder that I was sick and helping really would not be in my best interest.

“No, I think we almost got it,” he said.

Great, I was free. Chris walked back out the door, but as I turned around to head back to my sleeping throne I saw his girlfriend trying to push the car off of the snow bank. I officially felt guilty. I changed out of my pajama pants and into some snow-worthy gear, then walked out the front door. I don’t know how they got themselves into this situation, but it was ridiculous. I wish I had taken pictures.

tahoe driveway

  • The driveway leading up to the house where we were staying was long, curvy, uphill, and covered with ice (0 for 4).
  • The car’s owner, JZ, took the chains off his tires…(0 for 5)
  • …right before backing out of the driveway…(0 for 6)
  • …in his front-wheel drive Acura (0 for 7).

Nothing was in their favor.

I have observed that when someone gets themselves into a tough spot, those coming to “help” them unfailingly do two things:

  1. Point out everything the person could have done differently to not have gotten themselves into the situation to begin with.

    I played this role to a T:

    “How’d you even get it like that?”
    “Why’d you back out?…it would have been easier to pull out forward”
    “Sucks that you took those chains off”
    “You didn’t bring a vehicle that has four-wheel drive?”

    Perfect pitch, tone and placement for maximum annoyance, and all while shaking my head with condescension.

  2. Just as the person begins to reach maximum frustration, point out how bad the situation really is.

    In step the neighbors.

    Fifteen minutes into useless squealing, revving, slipping on ice, falling in snow and pushing, an older couple walk by holding the leashes of their two brown-and-white Shih Tzus. They stop at the bottom of the driveway, contemplate the situation, and then peer up with judging and disappointing looks.

    From the husband:
    “You really got yourself stuck, didn’t you?”
    “In that position, it may even be impossible for a tow truck to help”
    “Putting down salt or sand helps with ice on the driveway, but I guess it’s too late for that now, huh?”

    His wife’s incredible follow up:
    “Do you have the ‘Three As’?”

    We look at each other confused, and then look back at her.


    “Yes, it’s really helpful, you should really get yourself a ‘Three As card’.”

They walk away. We look at each other, shake our heads, and call AAA.

AAA: “Hello, this is AAA, how can I help you?”
JZ: “Hi, my car is stuck in a driveway in Lake Tahoe.”
AAA: “Sorry to hear that. What part of New York did you say you’re in?”
JZ: “New York? I’m in Lake Tahoe.”
AAA: “Oh, very sorry. I thought that you were in a physical location. I didn’t realize you were stuck in water.”
JZ: “I’m not stuck in water. I’m in Lake Tahoe, California. It’s a city…umm, physical location.”
AAA: “California? This is the New York office. Let me transfer you.”

AAA: “Hello, this is AAA, how can I help you?”
JZ: “Hi, my car is stuck in a driveway in Lake Tahoe.”
AAA: “Is that in Florida?”
JZ: “I’m looking for the California office.”
AAA: “Oh, OK, please hold.”

AAA: “Hello, this is AAA, how can I help you?”
JZ: “Could you send someone out to Lake Tahoe, California to help me get my car out of the driveway?”
AAA: “Sure thing.”
JZ: “Great”
AAA: “Where in Lake Tahoe are you?”
JZ pulls out the address and reads it off to the AAA agent….
AAA: “Where is that?”
JZ: “What? Do you need directions?”
AAA: “That would be great.”
JZ: “I don’t live here. I’m just staying here for the weekend, but I can try. We’re off 89.”
AAA: “Can you give me a cross street?”
JZ: “Yes, West Lake Road/89.”
AAA: “Is that one street?”
JZ: “Yes, that’s one street.”
AAA: “Which grocery store are you near?”
JZ: “Grocery store?”
AAA: “Yes, so that I know where you are.”
JZ: “I have no idea.”
He turns to us.
“Does anyone have a receipt to the grocery store?”
We shake our heads.
AAA: “Did you see a Chambers?”
JZ: “I don’t know what Chambers is. I don’t think so. Wait…OK, yes, supposedly one of us may have seen a Chambers at some point.”
AAA: “Are you near the Chambers?”
JZ: “We might be. I have no clue. Aren’t you AAA? Do you want me give you the Google directions we used?”
AAA: “That would help”
…he does…
AAA: “Oh, I know exactly where you are.”
JZ: “Thank god.”
AAA: “So that I know we’re in the right place, what kind of car do you have?”
JZ: “An Acura 2.3 cl”
AAA: “And what color?”
JZ: “Color? It will be the only car that stuck across this driveway, I don’t think you’ll get confused. OK, OK, it’s red.”
AAA: “Thanks, we’ll be right there!”
JZ: “Great!”

JZ hangs up the phone, turns to us, laughs, and says, “There’s no way they’re gonna make it here. I think we’re on our own.”

After about 10 more miraculous minutes involving firewood, top soil and what shall henceforth be known as ‘The Mat of Glory’ the car was freed. We called to cancel with AAA, vowed to never use them again (though we will), and then the group headed off to the mountain.

Lessons learned: always carry salt, love thy neighbor, and trust in the ‘Three As’

January 15, 2011 at 3:38 pm 4 comments

Start with a clean slate

I’ve wanted to learn how to code for some time. Not sure what language I want to start with, but co-workers have come with their fair share of suggestions based on subjective favorites. I haven’t started doing anything tangible toward this goal, but Mashable’s Web Development Series has helped with some of the initial thinking.

I was reading a learning Ruby post earlier this morning and saw this quote from Obie Fernandez (whom I give credit for the title of this post):

“When I came over to Ruby from Java, my first instinct was to try recreating a bunch of concepts and architectural patterns that I already knew instead of learning new ones more appropriate to Ruby. Don’t try to bring over your old idioms and patterns, because they’ll just weigh you down.”

clean slate
Photo courtesy of Influence Corp

Leave your baggage behind, and start with a clean slate. Previous learnings are valuable, but sometimes we base decisions on preconceived notions acquired in inapplicable circumstances.

When starting a new job, new project, or new relationship try starting with a clean state. Results I’ve seen from this behavior have been very encouraging. I’ll let you know how it works in my coding adventure.

January 14, 2011 at 6:19 pm 9 comments

Unlocking potential in the less encouraged

Photo courtesy of BlatantNews.com on Flickr Some rights reserved

A friend stood in front of her class at an elementary school here in SF yesterday to discuss Martin Luther King, Jr. She stressed the importance of his message, his mission, and how much America has progressed in the last 40 years because of his great work and sacrifice.

She told her class, “Because of Dr. King America is no longer a segregated country. We have equal opportunity, equal rights, and…” She caught herself. She looked out at her class of 13 students. All of her students are Black or Hispanic, yet here she was claiming that segregation was over.

Her school is a low income, low resourced school, with over 75% of its students being economically disadvantaged. The staff are dedicated. The students are engaged, creative and energetic. But they don’t have equal opportunity. They don’t have equal rights.

Sure, the law claims to supply them with both. However, while not technically segregated based on race, they are segregated based on socio-economic status and this sets the (low) bar for future opportunity.

Recounting the story to me, my friend said, “I felt silly. I felt stupid. And I felt like a liar. Everyday we tell these kids that they can achieve anything they want, and we do what we can to make that true. But the infrastructure isn’t there. We tell them they can do it, and society tells them the opposite.”

Her words struck a chord. So I did what I always do when I’m curious: I gathered data.

Today, there are 6 Black CEOs in the Fortune 500. More than the 0 of fifteen years ago, but still only 6…1% of the total. Hispanics have 7 CEOs on that list. Asians make up another 7. And, well, we know who make up the other 480.

Looking at all US businesses doesn’t make things any better. I put together the table below which gives a breakout of US population and business stats from 2007 (the latest census info for businesses).

You can see Black-and-Hispanic-owned businesses are the most misaligned. So what’s up? They’re not less talented, less creative, or less energetic. What they are is less encouraged.

This thinking made me revisit a fantastic organization I hadn’t looked at in awhile, Management Leadership for Tomorrow (ML4T). ML4T tells future minority leaders “You can do it, and this is exactly how.” They provide tutoring, job skills, interview training and more to push that message home. The power in that is incredible.

Many times minorities aren’t able to see the glass ceiling, let alone break through it. Organizations like ML4T create awareness of opportunity and potential, and then they give minorities the tools and knowledge to achieve. It’s inspiring. These are the organizations that need our support and attention. These are the organizations that efforts like the upcoming Startup America need to get behind.

No doubt that America has come a long way thanks to the efforts of people like Dr. King. But we can’t forget that we still have a long way to go to truly end segregation and to create an equally opportunistic and representative society.

[UPDATE: Check out this Great informative and pointed post by Kalimah Priforce on the same topic – http://bit.ly/eoLLP9]

January 14, 2011 at 5:56 am Leave a comment

The little things

I’ve never been a big TV watcher, and for the past decade my two shows have been Lost and The Amazing Race. If you’re gonna choose two, then those are it, right?

Now Lost is gone forever (though I hold onto an ounce of hope) and the Amazing Race is in-between seasons…so I’ve got nothing. While out to dinner with a friend at this great sushi spot in San Francisco, she told me about a show she’s been watching for years: How I Met Your Mother. She let me borrow the first two seasons on DVD, and I was hooked. Netflix has brought me the rest of the way, and it’s been worth every minute.

Double Date

In the Season 5 episode “Double Date,” Ted, the main character, describes a time when he unknowingly went on the same blind date with the same woman (Jen) twice…7 years apart. When they discover what has happened, he and Jen decide to make the most of it. Walking through their first date, they tell each other what the other did to turn them off: Ted corrected a spelling error in the menu, Jen talked about her cats, Ted didn’t offer his coat when it was cold, Jen didn’t play the “who’s gonna pay the bill” dance, and so on. This causes Ted to ask, “could simple changes have catalyzed a series of events that would have changed our fate, maybe leading to marriage?” (Ted is obsessed with finding Ms. Right). This is a similar vein to the movie Sliding Doors, and it got me thinking that small behavioral changes really can make a big difference.

In business, it can equal not getting VC funding, losing budget approval for an internal project, or even not getting that job. The trick is understanding what personal changes you can make. For me, when I believe in something, I get pretty passionate. This is especially true when I’ve analyzed all the facts, and have had time to think through all the angles. At that point, I’m locked and loaded and you’re not changing my opinion. Well, apparently this has its downsides…

In late 2009 my team was working on the pricing strategy for a new product launch. The meeting with the relevant directors and VPs was set to decide on the final strategy. I came in knowing the right answer. I had the schedule, messaging, and numbers all worked out in my head, and had a great deck to back me up. I walked in confidently and laid out my opinion…which apparently came across less like opinion and more like fact. There were some ideological differences in the room, and my approach set off a tsunami of dissenting points of view. It quickly became 5 on 1, which I didn’t expect, and I knew that I’d caused it. Having my ducks in a row was great, but strolling in and immediately throwing those ducks at everyone didn’t go over so well. Needless to say, I lost.

After leaving the room I reflected. Was this a one time thing for me, or a common occurrence? I realized that I did this all of the time. I’ve always been good at debating “on the fly,” but I never realized that this was due to the fact that when I prepare I attack my audience! In some cases, this can turn out OK. Depends on the crowd. In this case it wasn’t good, and I’ve since changed this behavior. Know yourself, and know your audience. It’ll go a long way.

For more info, Mark Suster has a great post on presenting to different audiences here.

January 12, 2011 at 11:25 am 41 comments

A move from Microsoft’s playbook?

Microsoft’s historic success has come due to many reasons: great CEO in Bill Gates, superior execution, clarity of vision, and financial discipline among others. However, I believe that Netflix is using a different Microsoft play with its recent deals to have remote controls come with a Netflix button.

Netflix remote

As DOS, then Windows, was gaining traction as the winner in the OS market, Microsoft built its software to work on top of Intel’s chip set. Intel’s microprocessor began its industry-leading charge in the mid-1980s and Microsoft rode right along, a partnership that has lasted for 25 years (until recently?). The Netflix move is different, but similar – integrate yourself into/on top of another growing product…in short, piggybacking.

I can see Netflix’ benefits from these deals. Every consumer that uses one of these remotes will have a constant Netflix advertisement staring at them, and it’s name will become (even) more synonymous with internet movie streaming. But what are the electronics companies gaining? Sure consumers will find the button easier, but it’s not like it will be a differentiator – any company that makes an internet connected TV or device will have one. So aside from upfront costs (and the potential for future switching costs) I’m not sure I see it from there side. Why the move?

January 11, 2011 at 3:13 pm 1 comment

Simplicity, and knowing what to do

Throughout my life I’ve had the privilege (and sometimes misfortune) of being the confidant/adviser for a number of people from many backgrounds, and in a variety of situations. Lucky for me, many of these same people are happy to be there in return.

A statement that comes up 9 out of 10 times during discussions is “OK, that’s the story, and I don’t know what to do.” The truth is that I can’t think of a time when the person explaining the situation to me didn’t give me the answer themselves at some point during the story. Often the issue isn’t around knowing “what to do” but rather “how to do it”…or, better yet, how to do it without hurting someone’s feelings, leaving one’s comfort zone, or releasing one’s position with “pride” intact. This has held consistently whether the conversation was about a serious relationship, family, or even hitting on the girl next door.

confused monkey
Photo courtesy of Michael Keen Some rights reserved

I’ve seen similar situations like this pop up in business many times. About three or four years ago, when I was at McKinsey & Company, I was leading a 6-month long high profile, public facing project that required participation from more than 100 partners and directors across the organization. Getting this many people (including the financial and industry experts involved) herded and heading in the right direction is always a complicated effort; however, for the most part, we had the necessary frameworks, models and outlines in place for the process to go as smoothly as possible.

However, there was one, not so tiny, hitch. You see, the core work of the project was the financial valuation of over 300 privately held organizations, 60% of which had been McKinsey clients, or at least had some affiliation with McKinsey. Since the results would be public knowledge, published in a major global periodical, there was understandable unease from certain partners. For those that don’t know, McKinsey is, for good reason, very protective of client information. And while we, of course, respected and protected all necessary firewalls to ensure that the only data we would be releasing would not be client-sensitive, the fear of negative client reaction remained.

At the time, I fought for “academic integrity” and “clean data” with no compromises. This was my background and what I thought was right, no questions asked. However, this approach put me quite at odds with some powerful voices (….and fists…) at the firm. Not a good position to be in…trust me.

About 6 weeks before deadline I came to a crossroads. I didn’t know what to do. Keep standing my ground? Or “give in” to the pressure of leaving out certain organizations due to potential poor client perception…thus “compromising the integrity” of the whole project. If I didn’t uphold the quality of the data, I believed that it would hurt the credibility of the firm, as well as reflect poorly upon my own abilities. On the other hand, I had a political onslaught from some big names to deal with. Neither of these touched the real issue, but I still went back and forth and complicated the crap out of the choice.

In the end, I chose to fight. The wrong choice. About five days before deadline the whole thing was scrapped. This decision came down to one director whom I’d never met but still managed to spend quite some time on my black list (for what that was worth…pretty much nothing) because I felt like all my work was thrown in the trash. I now understand that the director made the right choice. While I can still understand my position, what I missed at the time was that the choice was simple. Line 1 of McKinsey’s Values is “Put the client’s interest ahead of our own.” Bottom line: dropping the fight was in our client’s best interest. This is the benefit of having a strong value structure – this works both professionally and personally.

Humans naturally complicate everything that we touch. Stepping out of the weeds of a decision can often make knowing “what to do” very clear, whether in the workplace or in that current bad relationship that all of our friends (and ourselves when we’re honest) know that we’re in.

January 10, 2011 at 4:09 pm 1 comment

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About Me

I'm a San Francisco-based strategic thinker who believes that life is only as great as the people you choose to interact with. I love people, and studying business has given me greater insight into how to most effectively develop myself, and my personal relationships. I look forward to discussing people and business with those that find this area as fascinating as I do.

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